Mediterranean climate: where is it and what are its characteristics
Sardinia but mostly Cagliari and its surroundings, are the ideal destination at any time of the year because of the Mediterranean climate, distinct by warm and dry summers softened by a breeze from the sea, a few water precipitations and warm winters all along the coast.
Wait for the hot season to discover some of the most beautiful beaches in Sardinia or enjoy the beauty of the sea during winter and go for long walks on the seafront of Cagliari during the cold season? There isn’t a right answer because the Mediterranean climate makes the ancient island of Ichnusa the perfect destination all year round.
The Mediterranean climate, or Cs according to Köppen, is characterised by dry summers and warm brief winters during which there are the most rain precipitations. The sea also influences the climate, temperature range recorded is lower than 21° C, a condition made possible by the capacity of the sea to absorb the summer heat and release it during winter.
German geographer, botanist and climatologist Köppen, describes the Cs as the climate where the month with the least rainfall over the warm semester has below one third of the winter month with the most rainfall and always below 30 mm. To this description elaborated by Köppen, Spanish biologist Salvador Rivas Martínez adds the definition of Mediterranean bio climate meaning a climate with at least two consecutive summer months of drought.
There are two genres of Cs:
- Csa: warm summers with temperatures above 22°C, common to the Mediterranean coasts and Near East.
- Csb: tepid summers with temperatures between 18,9° C and 17,7°, common on the coast of California, Oregon and some areas in France, Marocco, Turkey, Chile and Australia.
To know which countries have a Mediterranean climate, all you need to do is look at a map and point at all territories facing the Mediterranean Sea. Ahead of all is Italy and its Ligurian, Tyrrhenian and ionic coasts, followed by the south and east of Spain, the French coast and the Balkan peninsula. It’s important to mention how the climates similar to Cs are found also in other continents including the Near East and Turkey, the Maghreb coasts in Africa and in the province of western cape in South Africa, the Californian coasts, central Chile and the south-western Australian coast. They are all areas positioned either north or south of the tropics and therefore have a warmer climate, researches like Carl Troll have considered the Cs as a sub-tropical climate.
In the southern regions of Italy, including Sicily and Sardinia and other Mediterranean areas with sub-tropical characteristics, apart from the mountainous areas, the climate is more similar to continental climates with strong temperature changes.
Mediterranean climate: psychophysical health benefits
The Cs conditions the development of flora, the life of wild fauna and activities connected to agriculture and farming which, like in Sardinia, have been in practice for centuries and are strongly connected to the economy of the territory.
The tempered weather is also good for the health and there are many benefits for mind and body. Catching sun in a correct way doesn’t give an enviable tan but it does regulate the production of serotonin, also know as the “good mood hormone”, and cortisol, know as “stress hormone”. Sunlight is good for humor and influences the epiphysis activities, an endocrine gland which regulates our sleep with the production of melatonin.
The sun is a precious ally, making us more beautiful on the outside and reducing stress and depression, it enhances our libido, testosterone and progesterone, helps the metabolism, relaxes the muscles, increases articular mobility and is good for the bones because ultraviolet rays stimulate the production of calcium and vitamin D, two fundamental elements for the health of our skeletal system. Sunbaths are a practice that shouldn’t be undervalued because they fight dermatitis and psoriasis, they lower blood pressure and reduce the probability of heart attacks and strokes.
The sea is also truly a natural and free medicine which can help regain a psychophysical balance. The sound of the waves has a relaxing and painkilling effect, it stimulates the production of endorphins which regulate our sleep pattern and have analgesic properties which improves our tolerance to pain. Breathing sea air reduces stress, stimulates our brain function, concentration, attention span and the production of serotonin, oxytocin and dopamine. The combination of wind and sea water is an effective natural aerosol, with the presence of sodium chloride, magnesium, iodine, calcium, potassium, bromine and silicon, it can break down mucus and phlegm, freeing the nasal area and improves breathing by keeping the lungs and bronchi in good health.